Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis means cellular – biologic and molecular – genetic examinations with the help of which a decision is taken whether an embryo which is received via artificial insemination is implanted to the alvus or not. PGD is used to determine inheritable diseases and harmful peculiarities of chromosomes and for determination of child’s sex and his inheritable peculiarities.

PGD was used more than 10 000 times. It is used since 90s. PGD causes many ethical and political contradictions because it touches a basic question – germ of life. In many countries, PGD is regulated by law and is allowed only for definite aims. In Germany PGD is used to escape bad inheritable diseases, death or miscarriages.

Preimplantation diagnosis – is a genetic examination of received in the result of artificial fertilization embryo before it is implanted to the woman’s alvus. On the third day after fertilization when an embryo consists of six or ten cells – one or two cells are extracted and examined on genetic mutations. Aneuploidie-Screening is considered to be preimplantation genetic diagnosis, when embryo is checked on additional chromosomes or a lack of them.

In 1990 in England first baby was born using PGD to avoid inheritable diseases and define sex of a baby. A child whose monogenetic inheritable disease was excluded, was born 2 years later. Quantity of children born with the help of PGD is over 10.000 today. PGD is used not only to determine circa 200 diseases but for other aims to, for example to increase success of artificial insemination and to determine baby’s sex.